A recent study has revealed that targeting tissues around pancreatic cancer cells may help stop their metastasis and improve chemotherapy outcomes. It was studied that how pancreatic cancer cells change their environment to enable easy metastasis, which is the main cause of pancreatic cancer-related death. The researchers discovered that some pancreatic tumours remodel the environment around them, which helps cancer cells metastasize and protects them against chemotherapy. Researchers compared tissue around tumour cells in both metastatic and non-metastatic pancreatic cancer cells. This tissue, known as matrix, acts like a glue that holds different cells or tumours together. Using mouse models, the team extracted fibroblasts-cells that produce most of the matrix from both spreading and non-spreading pancreatic tumours. It was found that cancer cells from a non-spreading tumour began to spread when mixed with fibroblasts from a spreading tumour. In this investigation, it was concluded …
Researchers have found that artificial intelligence recognizes new breast cancer types that respond differently to a treatment.
Using artificial intelligence, five new types of diseases were uncovered, each of them matched to different personalized treatments. The study applied AI and a machine-learning approach to gene sequences and molecular data from breast tumors, to reveal crucial differences among cancers that had previously been lumped into one type of disease. The researchers applied the AI-compatible computer software to a vast array of data available in the field of genetics, a molecular and cellular constituent of breast tumors, and data on patient survival.
The goal of the study is to apply this technique different types of cancer and get information about their response and sensitivity to treatment, part of evolution, and how to tackle drug resistan problem.  

Recently, researchers investigated the microbiome of prostate fluid to know about the role of the microbiome in prostate cancer. Scientists carried out the first comprehensive and detailed comparison of the microbial ecosystems of prostatic fluid of people with and without prostate cancer. To investigate, they recruited 59 participants out of which, 32 people were prostate cancer patients and 27 people were without prostate cancer. It was found that they all had high levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), an enzyme secreted by the prostate. Prostate fluid samples taken from prostate cancer patients were found to be less diverse than the samples from men without cancer. Between the two groups, the researchers also measured differences in the proportions of certain species, including Enterobacter, Streptococcus and Lactococcus. However, at this stage, it is unclear that altered populations of bacteria influence the progression of prostate cancer. Measuring PSA Levels is the standard in…

Immunotherapy drug effective against HPV-related cancers

According to a recent phase I clinical trial study, an investigational immunotherapy drug has shown effectiveness against tumors of advanced Human PapillomaVirus related cancers.
The drug, bintrafusp alfa, also called M7824, was designed to bind to two target proteins PD-L1 and TGF-beta simultaneously, that help prevent the immune system from effectively attacking tumours.The study included a total of 43 patients with advanced cancers, including cervical cancer, anal cancer and squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck.
Among all participants, 35% of the patients responded to the drug.
According to investigators, the drug is a promising agent for HPV-related cancers and may be beneficial more than traditional checkpoint therapies.
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Tumour size helps doctors determine stages of breast cancer

Tumour size is an important consideration in determining breast cancer staging.  Every breast cancer patient’s disease condition is different, but its stage provides a general indication of a patient’s treatment options and outlook.  The overall stages of cancer range from 0 to 4. Stage 0 means that breast cancer is at a very early stage and has not yet spread. Stage 4 is late-stage breast cancer, in which cancer has spread to other parts of the body. people with early-stage breast cancer are likely to have smaller tumours that are easier to treat. But, large tumours indicate late-stage breast cancer, which may be more difficult to treat. To determine the severity of the disease, size of primary breast cancer a tumour is measured at its widest point and unit of measure is millimetres(mm) or centimetres(cm).
Apart from tumour size, there are also other factors that help in determining the stages of breast cancer. These include the status of lymph nodes, appearance of cancer cells, hormone…
According to new studies, to spread in the other parts of the body, lung cancer cells use antioxidants by activating protein BACH1 and increasing the uptake and use of sugars. 
It is a well-known fact that cancer cells are exposed to oxidative stress caused by free oxygen radicals. Also, cancer cells are characterized by high uptake and use of sugar. 
When cancer cells metastasize to other parts of the body, they start reducing their oxidative stress, which can happen in two ways: the cancer cells can either obtain oxidants from the diet or synthesize their own.  In about one in every three cases of lung cancer, the tumor cells have special mutations, linked to the NRF2 and KEAP1 genes, which enable them to start producing their own antioxidants.
It is when the protein BACH1 is stabilized and accumulates in the cancer stimulates metastasis mechanisms, including one that orders the cancer cells to increase both the metabolism of sugar into cell fuel and lactic acid, and the stockp…

Tropical Plants Having Anticancer Properties

In a recent study, scientists have identified several tropic plants that have anticancer properties. Know about the study in detail at : Researchers from National University of Singapore investigated the pharmacological properties of some local plants. The team mainly focused on seven plants that are used for cancer as traditional medicines. Some of these were Bandicoot Berry (Leea indica), Seven Star Needle(Pereskia bleo), Fool’s Curry Leaves and others. The team prepared extract of fresh and healthy leaves from these plants and observed their effects on cells from different types of cancer. The team found that some of these plants contain some properties against some cancer cells.  The scientists suggest that further research is required to identify the active compounds associated with these plants, that provide the anticancer effects. Cancer is the current leading cause of death in Singapore, with 1 out of 5 people develop the condition at some point in their lives.

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